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MBA

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Jun 12, 2017

Analysis of ONGC Welfare Trust Composite Social Security Scheme (CSSS)

Jun 12, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is MBA project report on "Analysis of ONGC welfare trust composite social security scheme (csss)". Oil and Natural Gas Corporation has been ranked as the Top Energy Company in India, in the coveted Platt’s top 250 Global Energy Company Rankings 2014. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.


Analysis of ONGC Welfare Trust Composite Social Security Scheme (CSSS)


As per SWOT analysis of ONGC is the only company in India who is involved in offshore construction activities relates to oil and gas projects for more than two decades. It has rich experience over the last 25 year in its execution and possesses abundant data associated with these projects. ONGC contribute 90% of Indian crude oil production.

Recommended MBA Project: 350+ MBA Project Ideas and Report


Further is analysis tells about the operational cost of ONGC, which is among the lowest in the world and its reserve level is equivalent to 23 years of production. ONGC can boost of installing 28 processor platforms, 132 well platforms and more than 4000 KM submarine pipelines. Another area of strength of ONGC is its commitment and quality of maintenance management.


The objective of this project was mainly to study how welfare trust called CSSS (composite social security scheme) work. But there are some more and they are:-


1. The main purpose is to render a better understanding of CSSS (Composite social security scheme).

2. To understand the planning and management of CSSS.

3. To measure the financial soundness of the trust by analyzing various ratio.


This is a well researched MBA project report on "Analysis of ONGC welfare trust composite social security scheme (csss)". Use this report only for your reference and study purpose. Thanks to the author of the project.


Author:- Priyanka D Singh


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May 28, 2017

MBA Report on Training and Development in Parle Biscuit Private Limited

May 28, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is MBA project report on "training and development in Parle Biscuit Private Limited". The objective of this management project is to know the effectiveness of training and development. Firstly, this project discuss about the training and development i.e. what is training and development, types, methods and approach, etc. Secondly, it tells about the company profile of Parle Biscuit Private limited. The analysis have been done through the process of filling the questionnaire, to know exactly what the employees feels about the company training and development programs. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.


Training and Development in Parle Biscuit Private Limited


Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes as a result of the training of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills. Training & development is the field concerned with workplace learning to improve performance.


Recommended MBA Project: Training & Development of Cholan Roadways Corporation Kumbakonam


The principal objectives of training and development divisions is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, organizational, Functional, and Societal.

In Parle Biscuit Private Ltd. training & development activities assumes a significant place. The management is deeply interested in developing their people through this tool in effective manner. All training & development activities are quite exhaustive in nature and are carefully woven exercises. Utmost care is taken to make this process effective.


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY



1. To understand and appreciate the training system in an organizational context.
2. To understand the existing training method in the organization.
3. To take the feedback from the employees on the training programme.
4. To find the problem if any the system.
5. To suggest the method if any improvement is needed.
6. To gather information on training needs and identification.
7. To study the process of training in the Parle Biscuit Private Limited.


Training and development programmes in Parle are relevant and effective in preparing the employees for the job they do as well as keeping them appraise with new technology in this competitive era.

Training facilities were perceived by the respondents to be quite adequate. The training was relevant and effective in terms of the job performed by the managers. Training and development programmes undergone by the management staff improve performance and effectiveness of employees.


Author:- Akansha khurana

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Apr 29, 2017

Planning, Analysis & Design of Departmental Store Building

Apr 29, 2017 - 0 Comments

Civil engineering is a broad branch which involves everything in construction and planning. So, today we brought you Civil engineering project on "planning, analysis and design of departmental store building". This is very unique design to meet the need of the various functional and structural things. Functional design can foster skill, economy, conveniences, and comforts and can compete needs and priorities. A good front elevation is also given to enhance the appearance of the building. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.


Civil Project on Design of Departmental Store Building


The plan of "departmental store building" as building bye law. The analysis and design of the various building components are as per is codal provisions and recommendations. The ultimate aim of the project is to get an economical section for the structural system. This Civil engineering project deals with the planning of the departmental store building by using auto cad. The building frame is to be analyzed by using the software ‘staadpro’ and 3D view of the building using the ‘revit architecture’. The structural additives are to be made by limit state method as per the is code.


Recommended Project: Training Report on Residential Building Construction


A departmental store is a retail establishment which satisfies a extensive range of long lasting goods and products to the consumer's personal and residential needs; and at the same time providing the consumer a choice of many merchandise lines, at different price points, in all product categories.


Department stores are usually part of a retail chain of many stores situated around a country or several countries. Construction of a departmental store in this area provides easy and fast purchasing of goods.


DESIGN PROCEDURE:


1. Basic Codes for Design.
2. General Design Consideration of IS: 456-2000.
3. Calculation of horizontal loads and vertical load on buildings.
4. Vertical load analysis.
5. Horizontal load analysis.


Design methods included in this project are structure and structural elements to be normally designed by limit state method & working stress method which may be used where limit state method cannot be conveniently adopted.

This civil project on “planning, analysis and designing of departmental store building” is well planned and designed with space in mind. The entire structural requirements such as lighting, ventilation, emergency exit, etc., were also considered in planning. This project report include store layout and design, design of beam, etc. Use this project for your reference and study work.


Author:- K. Anand, S. Senthil Kumar, B. Abinesh, A. Ummar Khan


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Apr 23, 2017

Dense Grade Bituminous Mixes with Coal Ash by Using Natural Fiber

Apr 23, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is Civil project report on "study on development in engineering properties of dense grade bituminous mixes with coal ash by using natural fiber". This project is for specific branch of Civil engineering that is "Pavement Engineering". This M.tech project work is done to provide the best use of ash, namely bottom ash as fine aggregate and fly ash as mineral filler with natural fiber (such as sisal fiber) used to improvise the engineering properties of bituminous paving mixes. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.


Dense Grade Bituminous Mixes with Coal Ash by Using Natural Fiber


In the present report, dense graded bituminous mix specimens are formed using natural aggregate as coarse aggregates, bottom ash as fine aggregates, fly ash as filler and sisal fiber as additive. Some part of of aggregate for dense graded bituminous macadam (DBM) grading has been considered as per MORTH (2013) having nominal maximum aggregates size (NMAS) 26.5 mm. To strengthen the mix, slow setting emulsion (SS1) coated sisal fiber is added in varying percentage of 0, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% by weight of the mix, with different length variations such as 5mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm.


Recommended Civil Project: Civil Project on Trickling Filter System


In this Civil report chapter 4 describes the experimental work done to ensure the performance characteristics of the DBM mixture made from coal ash and sisal fiber. The experimental work includes Marshall properties analysis, Indirect Tensile Strength test (ITS), Tensile strength ratio, Retained stability test and Static creep test. If you directly want to see the result analysis of several test results for modified and unmodified DBM mixes, check chapter 5.


It is finally observed that not only satisfactory, but also much improved engineering properties result with coal ash as fine aggregate and filler, stabilized with natural sisal fiber duly coated with SS-1 emulsion in advance. Utilization of non-conventional aggregate like coal ash and natural fiber together thus may help to find a new way of bituminous pavement construction.


The coal ash dumping which is a serious concern to everyone in respect of its disposal and environmental pollution, can find one way for its reuse in an economical way by substituting natural resources of sand and stone dust. Use this report only for your reference and study purpose and thanks to the author of the project.


Author:- Saswat Biswapriya Dash

Source: NIT Rourkela

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Apr 16, 2017

Study of Trends & Effectiveness of Non-Performing Assets Recovery Measures

Apr 16, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is MBA dissertation project report on the study of trends and effectiveness of non-performing assets recovery measures. Non-performing Assets (NPA) are frightening the stability and sabotaging bank’s profitability through a loss of interest income, write-off of the principal loan amount itself. The financial reforms helped majorly to clean NPA in the Indian banking industry. The earning capacity and profitability of the bank are highly affected due to this NPA. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.


Study of Trends and Effectiveness of Non-Performing Assets Recovery Measures


The three letters “NPA” strike terror in banking sector and business circle today. NPA is a quick form of “Non-Performing Assets”. In banking, NPA are loans given to doubtful customers who may or may not repay the loan on time. There are two types of assets viz. performing and non-performing. Performing loans are normal loans on which both the principle and interest are secured and their return is guaranteed.

Non Performing assets means the debt which is given by the bank is unable to recover it is called NPA. Non-Performing Asset (NPA) is a result of Asset-Liability Mismatch. A NPA account in the books of accounts is an asset as it indicates the amount receivable from the Defaulters. It means if any bank gives loan to the customer if the interest for that loan is not paid by the customer till 90 days then that account is called as NPA account.


Recommended MBA Project: Comparative Analysis on Non Performing Assets of Private and Public Sector Banks


The Non Performing Asset (NPA) concept is restricted to loans, advances and investments. As long as an asset generates the income expected from it and does not disclose any unusual risk other than normal commercial risk, it is treated as performing asset, and when it fails to generate the expected income it becomes a “Non Performing Asset”.

In other words, a loan asset becomes a Non Performing Asset (NPA) when it ceases to generate profits, i.e. interest, fees, commission or any other dues for the bank for more than 90 days. A NPA is an advance where payment of interest or repayment of instalment on principal or both remains unpaid for a period of two quarters or more and if they have become „past due‟. An amount under any of the credit facilities is to be treated as past due when it remain unpaid for 30 days beyond due date.


Objective of The Study



1. To know the impact of NPA’s on profitability of Banks.

2. To know the causes of NPA’s.

3. To examine the current status of NPA in Indian Banking.



To conclude, NPA or Non-Performing Assets are the types of assets which are the subject of major concerns to the banking sector and the other non-banking financial institutions. A loan or lease that does not comply the said principal sum and the interest sum payments is termed as non-performing assets.

This project on the study of trends and effectiveness of non-performing assets recovery measures deals with the types of NPA and its causes as well as its impact on the banking sector and the economy as a whole. A study was done on the various Banks of India and its associates. Use this report only for your reference and thanks to the author of this project.


Author:- Ankit Pal

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Apr 8, 2017

Study of Cryogenic Air Separation Unit using Aspen Hysys

Apr 8, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is M.Tech Mechanical engineering project on "simulation study of cryogenic air separation unit using aspen hysys at Rourkela Steel Plant". As the name suggest the simulation investigation of cryogenic air separation unit (Rourkela steel plant, Odisha) is done by using Aspen Hysys. It is based on steady state and dynamic (high pressure column and low pressure column) both. The dynamic air separation unit has been designed based on PI controller. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.


Study of Cryogenic Air Separation Unit using Aspen Hysys


Requirement of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon gases is increases day by day specially in steel industries because these 3 components are very important for steel production. They are used in processes like decarburization, desulphurization, hydrogen elimination, nitrogenation, argon, oxygen removal, metallic reducing, welding, and cooling, etc.


Cryogenic air separation has the nice impact to split the air. Study and analyses of practical plant performance through computer aided programs has better results and are cost effective. Aspen Hysys by Aspen Technology is one of the fundamental process simulators that are broadly used in cryogenic, chemical and thermodynamic process industries today.


Types of Separation Techniques



Mainly there are 3 type of air separation method which are used i.e. (a) distillation, (b) adsorption and (c) membranes.

Distillation approach is one of the most efficient of the three technologies. And able to produce for both high purities greater than 99% and large scale productions.

Adsorption method is able to produce purities of oxygen up to 95%, but this approach requires adsorbent which has limited size and saturation problem and also costly capacity due primarily to capital costs.

Recommended Mechanical Project: Redesign of Rollator’s Parking Brake System

Other techniques of air separation are pressure swing adsorption and Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption, are used to separate a single component of atmospheric air. But high purity oxygen, nitrogen, and argon are produced by cryogenic distillation.

Cryogenic air separation technology has the ability to produce the largest volumes of products at a moderate to high-purity level, compared to non-cryogenic based systems such as pressure-swing adsorption and membrane technologies, which are employed at the lower end of production scale and low purities. That is why this method is so important.


This project on "simulation study of cryogenic air separation unit using aspen hysys" also discuss about the plant efficiency, specific power consumption, product purity and behaviour of process parameter with respect to time and feed disturbance. This project is specifically for Cryogenic and Vacuum Technology which comes under Mechanical engineering.

This report contains process flow diagram of air separation plant, dynamic simulation diagram, results and tables, etc. Use this project report for your reference and study work only and many thanks to the author of the project.


Source: http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/5971/

Author:- Deepak Kumar Bhunya

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Apr 3, 2017

Improving Process Efficiency Using Design of Experiments (DOE)

Apr 3, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is Mechanical engineering final year project on "improving process efficiency using design of experiments" and has been submitted to Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow. This task shows the implementation of Six Sigma approach, DMAIC development technique and DOE (Design of experiment) into capacitor manufacturing in mass. The end result suggests that by way of following the theoretical Six Sigma approach and DMAIC steps, the defects from major OTR (Out of tolerance) hassle will be reduced. And boom inside the output after 1st yield from 97.87% to 97.577%.You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.



Mechanical Project on Improving Process Efficiency using Design of Experiments



Design of experiments (DOE) was coined by Ronald A. Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s at Rothamsted Experimental Station, an agricultural research station 25 miles north of London.

Design of experiments is a series of tests in which intended modifications are made to the input values of a system or process and the effects on response variables are measured.


Recommended Mechanical Project: Hybrid Vehicle: Design and Development


Design of experiments is applicable to both physical processes and computer simulation models. Experimental design is an effective software for maximizing the amount of information gained from a study while minimizing the amount of data to be collected. Factorial experimental designs examines the effects of many different factors by varying them regularly instead of changing only one factor at a time.

The first thing which this project on "improving process efficiency using design of experiments" suggest that by applying full factorial analysis the O/Pis surge by 0.687 % which is quite impressive. In this project, the analyses is done only considering the OTR so it is not necessary that over all rejection will reduce by considering all parameter which contribute to produce defect in the capacitor manufacturing.

This report contains method of manufacturing, statistical tool, analysis of data, OTR, DOE, cause and effect diagram, X-chart, PIE chart, pareto chart, Stagger and Pre margin, Fishbone diagram, etc. Use this report for your reference and study and thanks to the author of project.


Author:- Bhupendra Rawat, Shaswat shukla, Alok kumar, Konark Tripathi, Abhay singh, Dheerendra Kumar singh


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Apr 1, 2017

MBA Project on Flexible Working Hours and Employee Performance

Apr 1, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is a MBA project report on "flexible working hours and employee performance". The competitive environments in which 21st century employees work has made it imperative that a flexible working arrangement that creates a balance between work and lifestyle be created. Such will allow employees focus on their multiple roles. This project work investigate on the nature of relationship between the flexible working hours and employee performance in some hospitals. You can also subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such MBA projects and seminar.


MBA Project on Flexible Working Hours and Employee Performance


Current years have seen a dramatic boom in the prevalence of flexible work practices (FWPs), which are practices that afford employees control over when, where, or how much they work. More recently, work and the nature of the work surroundings; personal motives (such as home and family, personal career opportunities and professional development); and economic reasons such as level of remuneration particularly in acute care hospital settings, is complicated by the very nature of patient care being ongoing and required round-the-clock.

Getting work life balance and spending good time with families is the main goal of every individual worker, specially among IT professionals, health workers, etc. More broadly, Chang, Hancock, Johnson, Daly, and Jackson (2005) proposed several strategies to support health workers with their role stress and high workloads.


Recommended MBA Project: Study on Employee Motivation


These include: use of stress education and management strategies, team building strategies, balancing priorities, enhancing social and peer support, flexibility in work hours, protocols to deal with violence and retention. Having flexibility in work hours may improve a health worker’s ability to cope with the demands of family roles and participate in a 7 day per week/24 hour coverage roster. Flexible scheduling is an important element of flexible work hours and in achieving work life balance.

Many companies has started giving flexible working hours to help employees balance work and family life. This project on "flexible working hours and employee performance" focused on three types of flexible work arrangements that pertain to time flexibility; flextime schedules (i.e., employees can select work hours given certain restrictions by the organization), shift work (ie a pattern of work in which one employee replaces another on the same job within a 24-hour period, Forth and Bryson, 2011) and compressed workweek schedules.


The results revealed that there was a positive relationship between flexible working hours and employee performance. However, an unanticipated flexible working system (FWS) was found in the hospitals, where FWS is seen as management centered and not employee centered. Use this report only for your reference and study work. Thanks to the author of the project.


Author: Hilda E. Osisioma, Hope Ngozi Nzewi & Ilo Lilian Ifechi

Source: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2745837


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Mar 25, 2017

CSE Project on Remote Server Monitoring System for Corporate Data Centers

Mar 25, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is Computer Science Engineering project on "remote server monitoring system for corporate data centers". This project is basically developed to help corporation in monitoring remote servers through a web application. There is a need for a web based application which can capture all the organization and data center details and remotely check if each of servers is up and running all the time. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.

Remote Server Monitoring System for Corporate Data Centers


This tracking piece of the software keeps pinging each of the remote servers at the particular intervals and based on the rules setup and response received it sends out a SMS to a predefined list of specialists whenever there is a failure. This SMS may also incorporate the information related to the server that has failed and additionally the time at which it had failed.


Recommended Project: Low Cost Heartbeat Monitoring System


Earlier no system existed to cater to the needs of ‘Secure Infrastructure Implementation System’. The cutting-edge system evolved is technically feasible. It's far an internet based consumer interface for audit workflow at NIC-CSD. Thus it provides an smooth get entry to to the customers. The database’s cause is to create, establish and keep a workflow among numerous entities in order to facilitate all worried customers in their various capacities or roles. Permission to the users would be granted primarily based on the jobs specified. Therefore, it affords the technical assure of accuracy, reliability and safety.


The software program and hard necessities for the improvement of this assignment aren't many and are already to be had in-house at NIC or are to be had as unfastened as open source. The job for the assignment is completed with the contemporary equipment and current software technology. Vital bandwidth exists for supplying a quick comments to the users irrespective of the number of customers the usage of the device.


Advantages of Remote Server Monitoring System



The project is identified by the advantage of the system offered to the end user. The merits of this project are as follows: -

1. It is a web-enabled project, so easy to use.

2. This project offers user to enter the data through simple and interactive forms. This is very helpful for the client to enter the desired information through so much simplicity.

3. The user is mainly more concerned about the validity of the data, whatever he is entering. There are checks on every stages of any new creation, data entry or updation so that the user cannot enter the invalid data, which can create problems at later date.

4. Sometimes the user finds in the later stages of using project that he needs to update some of the information that he entered earlier. There are options for him by which he can update the records. Moreover there is restriction for his that he cannot change the primary data field. This keeps the validity of the data to longer extent.

5. Data storage and retrieval will become faster and easier to maintain because data is stored in a systematic manner and in a single database.

6. Decision making process would be greatly enhanced because of faster processing of information since data collection from information available on computer takes much less time than manual system.

This project report contains, DFD diagrams for Remote Server Monitoring, UML diagrams for remote server monitoring system for corporate data centers, class diagram, use case diagram, sequence diagram, collaboration diagram, screenshots, and some coding. Use this project for your reference and stud work.

Author:- T.Naveena


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Mar 20, 2017

MBA Project on Value Creation in Buyouts

Mar 20, 2017 - 0 Comments

Private equity firms have demonstrated a historical success in the buyout industry. However, current trends in the industry such as institutional changes, phenomenon of capital overhang and an influx of new entrants have intensified competition among buyout firms. To maintain the expected high gains, private equity firms must actively create values for their portfolio companies. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such MBA projects and seminar.

MBA Project on Value Creation in Buyouts

The results indicate that this studied corporations undertake to a big magnitude identical behavior in relation to corporate and business governance and fiscal engineering. Using governance engineering, the particular corporations seek to bolster the particular profile companies’ governance program by way of right.

Recommended MBA Project: Performance Appraisal System at ACME


There have been variations in actions taken through the studied corporations. Elements that would have an effect on the behavior of private equity firms are the kind of businesses received, the company size, their perception of danger and praise regarding a particular action, as well as years of studies in the industry. There's no not unusual time-frame for movements taken by the studied companies. However, all firms emphasize the importance of enforcing essential modifications within the early years of the investments.

Author: Bengtsson Patrik, Nagel Ron, Nguyen An

Source: Jönköping University

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Mar 5, 2017

CSE Project on Online Voting / Polling System

Mar 5, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is Computer Science engineering project on "online voting /polling system", which focus on solving issue in voting like ridging votes during election, insecure or inaccessible polling stations, inadequate polling materials and also inexperienced personnel. With this system, the voters or citizens shall be given good amount of time during the voting period. They shall also be trained on how to vote online before the election time. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.


CSE Project on Online Voting / Polling System


In “Online Voting / Polling System” a voter can use his\her voting right online without any difficulty. First of all voter has to be registered in the system to vote. Registration is mainly done by the system admin for security reasons. The system Administrator registers the voters on a special site of the system visited by him only by simply filling a registration form to register voter.


Citizens seeking registration are expected to contact the system admin to submit their details. After the validity of them being citizens of country has been confirmed by the system administrator by comparing their details submitted with those in existing databases such as those as the registrar of persons, the citizen is then registered by the Election governing body as a voter.


Recommended Project: Electronic Voting machine (EVM)


After registration, the voter is assigned a secret username and password with which he/she can use to log into the system and enjoy services provided by the system such as voting, checking results among others. If invalid/wrong details are submitted, then the citizen is not registered to vote.

This project on the Online Voting System (OVS) focuses only on the voting phase. Electronic voting using the OVS should be cheaper than the present paper based arrangement of some countries. The phenomenal use of the Internet as a vehicle for improving communication, access to information and electronic commerce has led to the claim that the Internet could be used as either a replacement to attendance voting or as an additional voting option.

Use this project report for your reference only. Thanks to the author of this project. Do let us know in comments and Facebook, the scopes of improvement of this project. Right we only have its project report and no source code.


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Feb 20, 2017

Seminar on Single Event Error

Feb 20, 2017 - 0 Comments

This is Electronics engineering seminar topic. Satellites and other space equipment are constantly prone to dangers posed by solar radiation and cosmic rays. The effect of cosmic rays on semiconductor materials results in errors which sometimes lead to devastating consequences. These errors, classified into soft and hard errors are to be kept in mind while designing the electronic equipment that is to be used in space and for other precise equipment. Single event errors are such anomalies in computing systems caused by the cosmic rays emanating primarily from the sun.

Single event upsets were first detected by technicians manning electronic equipment after a nuclear test. Eliminating these errors involves testing the vulnerability of the equipment in the presence of different kinds of radiation in different kinds of materials and in different conditions. You can also Subscribe to FINAL YEAR PROJECT'S by Email for more such projects and seminar.

Seminar on Single Event Error

The method of preventing these errors is two fold - one called ‘hardening’ and the other, ‘logical’. Technologies like heavy ion testing are being used to predict the behavior of electronic materials when exposed to ionizing radiations. The data obtained from these tests is used to determine the best materials to shield the electronic circuits from the radiations in the case of ‘hardening’. In the case of logical techniques, usage of parity bits and other redundancy checks to counter the effects of the radiation is followed.


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This paper is an effort by the authors to introduce the topic of single event errors and discuss the possible ways of avoiding and/or correcting them.

A single event effect (SEE) evolve from, as the term suggests, a single, energetic particle. The possibility of single-event upsets was first postulated by Wallmark and Marcus in 1962. The 1st real satellite anomalies were informed in 1975. Some of the early pioneering work was by May and Woods, who investigated alpha-particle-induced soft errors. In their work the source of alpha particles was not from space but rather from the natural decay of trace (ppm) concentrations of uranium and thorium present in integrated circuit packaging materials.


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